|Birthname||Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili|
|born on||6 December 1878 Jul.Cal. (18 Dec 1878 greg.)|
|Place||Gori, Georgia (Caucasus), 41n58, 44e07|
|Timezone||LMT m44e07 (is local mean time)|
Georgian revolutionary and Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from the mid–1920s until 1953 as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922–1952) and Premier (1941–1953). Despite initially governing the Soviet Union as part of a collective leadership, he eventually consolidated power to become the country's de facto dictator by the 1930s. A communist ideologically committed to the Leninist interpretation of Marxism, Stalin formalised these ideas as Marxism–Leninism, while his own policies are known as Stalinism.
Born to a poor family in Gori in the Russian Empire (now Georgia), Stalin joined the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party as a youth. He edited the party's newspaper, Pravda, and raised funds for Vladimir Lenin's Bolshevik faction via robberies, kidnappings, and protection rackets. Repeatedly arrested, he underwent several internal exiles. After the Bolsheviks seized power during the 1917 October Revolution and created a one-party state under Lenin's newly renamed Communist Party, Stalin joined its governing Politburo. Serving in the Russian Civil War before overseeing the Soviet Union's establishment in 1922, Stalin assumed leadership over the country following Lenin's 1924 death. Under Stalin, "Socialism in One Country" became a central tenet of the party's dogma. Through the Five-Year Plans, the country underwent agricultural collectivisation and rapid industrialisation, creating a centralised command economy. This led to significant disruptions in food production that contributed to the famine of 1932–33. To eradicate accused "enemies of the working class", Stalin instituted the "Great Purge", in which over a million were imprisoned and at least 700,000 executed between 1934 and 1939. By 1937, he had complete personal control over the party and state.
Stalin's government promoted Marxism–Leninism abroad through the Communist International and supported European anti-fascist movements during the 1930s, particularly in the Spanish Civil War. In 1939, it signed a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany, resulting in the Soviet invasion of Poland. Germany ended the pact by invading the Soviet Union in 1941. Despite initial setbacks, the Soviet Red Army repelled the German incursion and captured Berlin in 1945, ending World War II in Europe. The Soviets annexed the Baltic states and helped establish Soviet-aligned governments throughout Central and Eastern Europe, China, and North Korea. The Soviet Union and the United States emerged from the war as global superpowers. Tensions arose between the Soviet-backed Eastern Bloc and U.S.-backed Western Bloc which became known as the Cold War. Stalin led his country through the post-war reconstruction, during which it developed a nuclear weapon in 1949. In these years, the country experienced another major famine and an anti-semitic campaign peaking in the doctors' plot.
He died of a cerebral haemorrhage on 5 March 1953 in Moscow, aged 74. After his death he was eventually succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who denounced his predecessor and initiated the de-Stalinisation of Soviet society.
Widely considered one of the 20th century's most significant figures, Stalin was the subject of a pervasive personality cult within the international Marxist–Leninist movement which revered him as a champion of the working class and socialism. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Stalin has retained popularity in Russia and Georgia as a victorious wartime leader who established the Soviet Union as a major world power. Conversely, his totalitarian government has been widely condemned for overseeing mass repressions, ethnic cleansing, deportations, hundreds of thousands of executions, and famines which killed millions.
- associate relationship with Churchill, Winston (born 30 November 1874)
- associate relationship with Gorky, Maxim (born 14 March 1868 Jul.Cal. (26 Mar 1868 greg.))
- associate relationship with Historic: World War II (born 1 September 1939). Notes: Leader of the Soviet Union
- associate relationship with Lenin, Vladimir (born 22 April 1870)
- associate relationship with Ulbricht, Walter (born 30 June 1893)
- opponent/rival/enemy relationship with Münzenberg, Willi (born 14 August 1889)
- opponent/rival/enemy relationship with Trotsky, Leon (born 7 November 1879)
- has other family relationship with Peters, William Wesley (born 12 June 1912). Notes: Father-in-law/ son-in-law
- (has as) recipient relationship with Sholokhov, Mikhail (born 11 May 1905 Jul.Cal. (24 May 1905 greg.))
- compare to chart of Historic: Great Patriotic War (born 22 June 1941)
- compare to chart of Nation: USSR, foundation (born 30 December 1922)
- Work : Begin Major Project 1911 (Founded party paper, Pravda)
Sy Scholfield provided birth record published on Wikimedia, stating birth date as 6 December 1878 (Julian calendar) . Previously this entry had same data (rated XX) with source notes as follows:
Felipe Ferreira of Portugal writes in October, 1994, "A year ago I saw a TV documentary in English on Stalin that briefly showed his birth register as the commentator said the date was December 6, 1878 OS. Stalin had put December 9 on his forged passport when he acted as a spy infiltrating Bolshevik circles.
J. Mixa of Czechoslovakia gives the same information, that Stalin falsified his birth information in 1921 when filling out party forms.
Both Ruth Gerbe and Marc Penfield wrote in March, 1996 that the biography by Edward Radzinsky "Stalin," Doubleday, 1996, p.6, gives December 6, 1878 as the true birth date, found in KGB and Russian archives."
(The erroneous date, December 9, 1879 is given in Bolshaya Sovyetskaya Entsiklopediya (Great Russian Encylopedia, Moscow, Soviet Publications 1974, 3rd Edition).
Prior dates have ranged widely; the Editor of AA (May/1969) wrote that "Our files contain no less that seven speculative charts based on five different dates, each one citing a biographical source or a flat statement on a Russian Embassy letterhead as authority."
Times of birth have been variously speculated for 3:00 AM, 4:00 AM, 8:00 AM but on specious dates.
Biography: Robert C. Tucker, "The Revolution from Above (1928-1941)"
Biography: Walter Laqueur, "Stalin: The Glasnost Revelations." In December 2008 Liane Thomas Wade submitted this to the NCGR Commentary e-zine: "Young Stalin* by British historian, Simon Sebag Montefiore. He had access to archives recently made available in many cities, including Gori in Georgia. This includes a short memoir by Stalin's mother, Ekaterina Geladze. Stalin's given name was Josef Djugashvili. ….Stalin's birthdate has always been uncertain. But Montefiore gives Stalin's birthdate as 6 December 1878,** (page 23) Old Style Julian Calendar, which "ran thirteen days behind the New Style Gregorian Calendar used in the West... The Soviet government switched to the New Style Calendar at midnight on 31 January 1918 with the next day declared 14 February." (page xxxii). The author notes that, "Stalin later invented much about his life: his official birthday was 21 December 1879, over a year later, an invented date. He generally stuck to 6 December 1878 until an interview in 1920 with a Swedish newspaper. In 1925, he ordered his secretary Tovstukha to formalize (sic) the 1879 date. There are several explanations, including his desire to re-create himself. Most likely, he moved the date later to avoid conscription." (footnote, page 23). No birth time is discussed in the book. *Vintage Books, A Division of Random House, New York. October 2008. (Copyright 2007)
Starkman rectified to 02.59.16 LMT Asc 2Sco13'
- Diagnoses : Body Part Problems : Brain (Cerebral haemorrhage)
- Personal : Death : Illness/ Disease (Cerebral haemorrhage)
- Vocation : Politics : Heads of state (P.M. of USSR)
- Notable : Famous : Historic figure (Russian dictator)
- Notable : Book Collection : American Book