Philipp I, Landgrave of Hesse

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Name
Philipp I, Landgrave of Hesse Gender: M
born on 13 November 1504 (greg.) at 05:00 (= 05:00 AM )
Place Marburg an der Lahn, Germany, 50n49, 8e46
Timezone LMT m8e46 (is local mean time)
Data source
Orig source not known
Rodden Rating C
Collector: Scholfield
Astrology data s_su.18.gif s_scocol.18.gif 20°25' s_mo.18.gif s_libcol.18.gif 07°44 Asc.s_libcol.18.gif 26°03'



Landgrave of Hesse Philipp I

Biography

German nobleman, Landgrave of Hesse, nicknamed der Großmütige ("the magnanimous"), who was a leading champion of the Protestant Reformation and one of the most important of the early Protestant rulers in Germany.

Philipp was the son of Landgrave Wilhelm II of Hesse and his second wife Anna of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. His father died when Philipp was five years old, and in 1514 his mother, after a series of struggles with the Estates of Hesse, succeeded in becoming regent on his behalf. Philipp was declared of age in 1518, his actual assumption of power beginning the following year.

The first meeting of Philipp of Hesse with Martin Luther took place in 1521, at the age of 17, at the Diet of Worms. There he was attracted by Luther's personality, though he had at first little interest in the religious elements of the gathering. Philipp embraced Protestantism in 1524 after a personal meeting with the theologian Philipp Melanchthon.

Although there was no strong popular movement for Protestantism in Hesse, Philip determined to organize the church there according to Protestant principles. The University of Marburg was founded in the summer of 1527 to be, like the University of Wittenberg, a school for Protestant theologians.

In 1531 Philipp was successful in accomplishing the purpose for which he had so long worked by securing the adhesion of the Protestant powers to the Schmalkaldic League, which was to protect their religious and secular interests against interference from the Emperor. The landgrave and his ally, Johann, Elector of Saxony, became recognized leaders of this union of German princes and cities. Philipp was thoroughly convinced that the Protestant cause depended on weakening the power of the Habsburg emperors both at home and abroad.

Within a few weeks of his marriage on on 11 December 1523 to the unattractive and sickly Christina of Saxony, who was also alleged to be an immoderate drinker, Philipp committed adultery; and as early as 1526 he began to consider the permissibility of bigamy. On 4 March 1540, Philipp married the daughter of one of his sister's ladies-in-waiting, Margarethe von der Saale.

Following the Schmalkaldic War, he and Johann, as the leaders of the Schmalkaldic League, were taken to south Germany on 23 June 1547 and held as captives. Philipp made an unsuccessful attempt to escape, but it was not until 1552 that the Peace of Passau gave him his long-desired freedom and that he was able, on 12 September 1552, to reenter his capital, Kassel.

Philipp and Christina had 10 children in the period 1527-1547. With Margarethe he had 9 children, from 1541 to 1558.

Philipp died on 31 March 1567, aged 62, in Kassel, Landgraviate of Hesse, Holy Roman Empire.

Link to Wikipedia biography

Relationships

  • associate relationship with Melanchton, Philipp (born 16 February 1497 Jul.Cal. (25 Feb 1497 greg.))

Events

  • Relationship : Marriage 11 December 1523 Jul.Cal. (21 Dec 1523 greg.) (Christina of Saxony)
    chart Placidus Equal_H.
  • Relationship : Marriage 4 March 1540 Jul.Cal. (14 Mar 1540 greg.) (Margarethe von der Saale)
    chart Placidus Equal_H.
  • Death of Mate 15 April 1549 Jul.Cal. (25 Apr 1549 greg.) (Christina of Saxony)
    chart Placidus Equal_H.
  • Death of Mate 6 July 1566 Jul.Cal. (16 July 1566 greg.) (Margarethe von der Saale)
    chart Placidus Equal_H.
  • Death, Cause unspecified 31 March 1567 Jul.Cal. (10 Apr 1567 greg.) (Age 62)
    chart Placidus Equal_H.

Source Notes

Sy Scholfield quotes from Frankfurter Ober-Post-Amts-Zeitung, 11 April 1839, p. 1: "Als am 13. November 1504, in der Nacht Saturni, in der Stunde Solis, Morgens nach fünf Uhr auf dem Schlosse zu Marburg, Anna, die Gemahlin des Landgrafen Wilhelm, eines Sohnes genas, der bestimmt war, Stammvater zu werden..."

(When on 13 November 1504, in the night of Saturn, in the Hour of Solis, at five o'clock in the morning at the castle in Marburg, Anna, the wife of Count Wilhelm, gave birth to a son, destined to become a patriarch...).

Categories

  • Family : Relationship : Number of Marriages (Two, bigamist)
  • Family : Parenting : Kids more than 3 (Nineteen)
  • Personal : Religion/Spirituality : Western (Protestant)
  • Notable : Famous : Royal family (House of Hesse)