Mortality: Night of the Long Knives

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Mortality: Night of the Long Knives Gender: N/A
Coup d'état and purge
born on 30 June 1934 at 06:55 (= 06:55 AM )
Place Bad Wiessee, Germany, 47n43, 11e43
Timezone MET h1e (is standard time)
Data source
Rodden Rating B
Collector: Scholfield
Astrology data s_su.18.gif s_cancol.18.gif 07°45' s_mo.18.gif s_aqucol.18.gif 20°26 Asc.s_leocol.18.gif 07°14'

Mortality: Night of the Long Knives (Kurt Daluege, chief of the Ordnungspolizei; Heinrich Himmler, head of the SS; and Ernst Röhm, head of the SA)
photo: Unknown author, license cc-by-sa-3.0-de


German purge that took place from 30 June to 2 July 1934, when the National Socialist German Workers Party, or Nazis, carried out a series of political extrajudicial executions intended to consolidate Adolf Hitler's absolute hold on power in Germany. Many of those killed were leaders of the Sturmabteilung (SA), the Nazis' own paramilitary organization, colloquially known as the "Brownshirts" due to the colour of their uniforms.

The best-known victim of the purge was Ernst Röhm, the SA's leader and one of Hitler's longtime supporters and allies. Leading members of the left-wing Strasserist faction of the Nazi Party, along with its figurehead, Gregor Strasser, were also killed, as were establishment conservatives and anti-Nazis, such as former Chancellor Kurt von Schleicher and Bavarian politician Gustav Ritter von Kahr, who had suppressed Hitler's Munich Beer Hall Putsch in 1923. The murders of SA leaders were also intended to improve the image of the Hitler government with a German public that was increasingly critical of thuggish Brownshirt tactics.

At least 85 people died during the purge, although the final death toll may have been in the hundreds, and some estimates run as high as 700 to 1,000. More than a thousand perceived opponents were arrested. Most of the killings were carried out by the Schutzstaffel (SS) and the Gestapo (Geheime Staatspolizei), the regime's secret police. The purge strengthened and consolidated the support of the Reichswehr for Hitler. It also provided a legal grounding for the Nazi regime, as the German courts and cabinet quickly swept aside centuries of legal prohibition against extrajudicial killings to demonstrate their loyalty to the regime. The Night of the Long Knives was a turning point for the German government. It established Hitler as "the supreme justiciar of the German people," as he put it in his 13 July 1934 speech to the Reichstag, the rubber-stamp ceremonial parliament of the Third Reich from 1933 to 1945.

Before its execution, its planners sometimes referred to the purge as Hummingbird (German: Kolibri), the codeword used to send the execution squads into action on the day of the purge. The codename for the operation appears to have been chosen arbitrarily. The phrase "Night of the Long Knives" in the German language predates the killings and refers generally to acts of vengeance. German historians still largely use the term Röhm-Putsch to describe the killings, the term given to it by the Nazi regime, despite its unproven implication that the executions were necessary to prevent a coup. Authors often use quotation marks or write about the sogenannter Röhm-Putsch ("so-called Röhm Putsch") for emphasis.

Link to Wikipedia biography


  • associate relationship with Eicke, Theodor (born 17 October 1892). Notes: Perpetrator
  • associate relationship with Ernst, Karl (born 1 September 1904). Notes: Victim
  • associate relationship with Gerlich, Fritz (born 15 February 1883). Notes: Victim
  • associate relationship with Goebbels, Joseph (born 29 October 1897). Notes: Perpetrator
  • associate relationship with Häbich, Walter (born 15 October 1904). Notes: Victim
  • associate relationship with Heines, Edmund (born 21 July 1897). Notes: Victim
  • associate relationship with Himmler, Heinrich (born 7 October 1900). Notes: Perpetrator
  • associate relationship with Hitler, Adolf (born 20 April 1889). Notes: Perpetrator
  • associate relationship with Klausener, Erich (born 25 January 1885). Notes: Victim
  • associate relationship with Lindemann, Erich (born 4 October 1894). Notes: Victim
  • associate relationship with Röhm, Ernst (born 28 November 1887). Notes: Victim
  • associate relationship with Röhrbein, Paul (born 27 November 1890). Notes: Victim

Source Notes

Sy Scholfield quotes from Reinhard Heydrich: Schlusselfigur des Dritten Reiches by Eduard Calic (Droste, 1982), p. 153: "Am 30. Juni 1934, gegen 2 Uhr morgens, besteigt Hitler in Köln ein Flugzeug. Goebbels und Reichspressechef Dietrich, die NS-Propagandi- sten, begleiten ihn auf dem Flug nach München, wo die Maschine um 4.30 Uhr landet. Eine Stunde später, um 5.30 Uhr, rollt die Wagenkolonne des Führers, von einer SS-Eskorte begleitet, auf Bad Wiessee zu. Um 6.45 Uhr stoppt sie vor dem Hotel »Hanselbauer«. Der Führer springt aus dem Wagen, eilt zu Röhms Zimmer, klopft energisch an die Tür, und als ihm der Reichsminister im Schlafanzug öffnet, ruft er: »Du bist verhaftet!« Die im Hotel versammelten übrigen SA-Führer werden ausnahmslos verhaftet und unmittelbar nach Stadelheim ins Gefängnis überführt."

(At about 2 o'clock in the morning of 30 June 1934, Hitler boarded a plane in Cologne. Goebbels and Reichspressechef Dietrich, the Nazi propagandists, accompany him on the flight to Munich, where the plane lands at 4.30. An hour later, at 5.30 am, the leader's motorcade, accompanied by an SS escort, rolls towards Bad Wiessee. At 6.45, it stops in front of the Hotel Hanselbauer. The Fuhrer jumps out of the car, hurries to Rohm's room, knocks vigorously at the door, and when the Reichsminister in his pajamas opens the door, he shouts, "You are under arrest!" The other SA leaders assembled at the hotel are arrested without exception and immediately afterward transferred to Stadelheim prison.)


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