|born on||22 September 1791|
|Place||Newington Butts, England, 51n30, 0w06|
|Timezone||LMT m0w06 (is local mean time)|
English scientist who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. His main discoveries include those of electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism and electrolysis.
Although Faraday received little formal education he was one of the most influential scientists in history. It was by his research on the magnetic field around a conductor carrying a direct current that Faraday established the basis for the concept of the electromagnetic field in physics. Faraday also established that magnetism could affect rays of light and that there was an underlying relationship between the two phenomena. He similarly discovered the principle of electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism, and the laws of electrolysis. His inventions of electromagnetic rotary devices formed the foundation of electric motor technology, and it was largely due to his efforts that electricity became practical for use in technology.
As a chemist, Faraday discovered benzene, investigated the clathrate hydrate of chlorine, invented an early form of the Bunsen burner and the system of oxidation numbers, and popularised terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion. Faraday ultimately became the first and foremost Fullerian Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institution of Great Britain, a lifetime position.
In his work on static electricity, Faraday's ice pail experiment demonstrated that the charge resided only on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage.
When asked by the British government to advise on the production of chemical weapons for use in the Crimean War (1853–1856), Faraday refused to participate citing ethical reasons.
Faraday died at his house at Hampton Court on 25 August 1867 aged 75 years and 11 months.
Sy Scholfield quotes entry in family bible reproduced in The Correspondence of Michael Faraday, Volume 1: 1811-1831 edited by Frank James (IET, 1991), p. xxviii: "Mi[c]hael Born September the 22' 1791." No time of birth recorded.
Taeger IHL quotes Penfield for aspeculative birth time of 5.00 LMT.
Starkman rectified it to 4.37.48 LMT
- Vocation : Science : Chemistry
- Vocation : Science : Physics
- Notable : Famous : Top 5% of Profession