Born, Max

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Born, Max Gender: M
born on 11 December 1882 at 03:30 (= 03:30 AM )
Place Breslau, Poland, 51n06, 17e0206
Timezone LMT m17e0206 (is local mean time)
Data source
BC/BR in hand
Rodden Rating AA
Collector: Scholfield
Astrology data s_su.18.gif s_sagcol.18.gif 18°59' s_mo.18.gif s_sagcol.18.gif 24°25 Asc.s_libcol.18.gif 29°48'

Max Born


German-British physicist and mathematician who was instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics. He also made contributions to solid-state physics and optics and supervised the work of a number of notable physicists in the 1920s and 30s. Born won the 1954 Nobel Prize in Physics for his "fundamental research in Quantum Mechanics, especially in the statistical interpretation of the wave function".

Born entered the University of Göttingen in 1904, where he found the three renowned mathematicians, Felix Klein, David Hilbert and Hermann Minkowski. He wrote his Ph.D.thesis on the subject of "Stability of Elastica in a Plane and Space", winning the University's Philosophy Faculty Prize. In 1905, he began researching special relativity with Minkowski, and subsequently wrote his habilitation thesis on the Thomson model of the atom. A chance meeting with Fritz Haber in Berlin in 1918 led to discussion of the manner in which an ionic compound is formed when ametal reacts with a halogen, which is today known as the Born–Haber cycle.

In 1921, Born returned to Göttingen, arranging another chair for his long-time friend and colleague James Franck. Under Born, Göttingen became one of the world's foremost centres for physics. In 1925, Born and Werner Heisenberg formulated the matrix mechanics representation of quantum mechanics. The following year, he formulated the now-standard interpretation of the probability density function in the Schrödinger equation, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1954. His influence extended far beyond his own research. Max Delbrück, Siegfried Flügge, Friedrich Hund, Pascual Jordan, Maria Goeppert-Mayer, Lothar Wolfgang Nordheim, Robert Oppenheimer, and Victor Weisskopf all received their Ph.D. degrees under Born at Göttingen, and his assistants included Enrico Fermi, Werner Heisenberg, Gerhard Herzberg, Friedrich Hund, Pascual Jordan, Wolfgang Pauli, Léon Rosenfeld, Edward Teller, and Eugene Wigner.

In January 1933, the Nazi Party came to power in Germany, and Born, who was Jewish, was suspended. He emigrated to Britain, where he took a job at St John's College, Cambridge, where he wrote a popular science book, The Restless Universe, and Atomic Physics, that soon became a standard text book. In October 1936, he became the Tait Professor of Natural Philosophy at theUniversity of Edinburgh, where, working with German-born assistants E. Walter Kellermann and Klaus Fuchs, he continued his research into physics. Born became a naturalised British subject on 31 August 1939, one day before World War II broke out in Europe. He remained at Edinburgh until 1952. He retired to Bad Pyrmont in West Germany. He died in hospital in Göttingen on 5 January 1970, aged 87.

Link to Wikipedia biography


  • business associate/partner relationship with Fermi, Enrico (born 29 September 1901)
  • business associate/partner relationship with Haber, Fritz (born 9 December 1868)
  • business associate/partner relationship with Herzberg, Gerhard (born 25 December 1904)
  • business associate/partner relationship with Pauli, Wolfgang (born 25 April 1900)
  • business associate/partner relationship with Teller, Edward (born 15 January 1908)
  • business associate/partner relationship with Wigner, Eugene (born 17 November 1902)
  • (has as) student relationship with Hund, Friedrich (born 4 February 1896). Notes: PhD


Source Notes

Sy Scholfield provided birth registry entry from German/Prussian Archives.

Previously birth time was unknown: Starkman rectified it to 11.02.28 LMT.


  • Traits : Personality : Idealist
  • Personal : Death : Long life more than 80 yrs (Age 87)
  • Vocation : Science : Mathematics/ Statistics
  • Vocation : Science : Physics
  • Notable : Extraordinary Talents : For Meritorious achievement
  • Notable : Extraordinary Talents : For Numbers
  • Notable : Awards : Nobel prize (Nobel Prize in Physics)
  • Notable : Famous : First in Field
  • Notable : Famous : Top 5% of Profession