|born on||18 December 1878|
|Place||Gori, Georgia (Caucasus), 41n58, 44e07|
|Timezone||LMT m44e07 (is local mean time)|
Russian politician, a Marxist by the age of 15. After the death of Lenin, he defeated Trotsky for leadership of the country. In 1911 he founded the Communist Party's paper, "Pravda." Eventually he became the Prime Minister and leader of the Communist Party of the USSR. The author of many books on socialism, he thought he was leading a backward country to a glorious future; he now stands accused as the cause of all that holds Russia back.
Stalin died March 5, 1953..
- associate relationship with Churchill, Winston (born 30 November 1874)
- associate relationship with Gorky, Maxim (born 14 March 1868 Jul.Cal. (26 Mar 1868 greg.))
- associate relationship with Lenin, Vladimir (born 22 April 1870)
- associate relationship with Ulbricht, Walter (born 30 June 1893)
- opponent/rival/enemy relationship with Münzenberg, Willi (born 14 August 1889)
- opponent/rival/enemy relationship with Trotsky, Leon (born 7 November 1879)
- (has as) recipient relationship with Sholokhov, Mikhail (born 11 May 1905 Jul.Cal. (24 May 1905 greg.))
- compare to chart of Nation: USSR, foundation (born 30 December 1922)
- Work : Begin Major Project 1911 (Founded party paper, Pravda)
Felipe Ferreira of Portugal writes in October, 1994, "A year ago I saw a TV documentary in English on Stalin that briefly showed his birth register as the commentator said the date was December 6, 1878 OS. Stalin had put December 9 on his forged passport when he acted as a spy infiltrating Bolshevik circles.
J. Mixa of Czechoslovakia gives the same information, that Stalin falsified his birth information in 1921 when filling out party forms.
Both Ruth Gerbe and Marc Penfield wrote in March, 1996 that the biography by Edward Radzinsky "Stalin," Doubleday, 1996, p.6, gives December 6, 1878 as the true birth date, found in KGB and Russian archives."
(The erroneous date, December 9, 1879 is given in Bolshaya Sovyetskaya Entsiklopediya (Great Russian Encylopedia, Moscow, Soviet Publications 1974, 3rd Edition).
Prior dates have ranged widely; the Editor of AA (May/1969) wrote that "Our files contain no less that seven speculative charts based on five different dates, each one citing a biographical source or a flat statement on a Russian Embassy letterhead as authority."
Times of birth have been variously speculated for 3:00 AM, 4:00 AM, 8:00 AM but on specious dates.
Biography: Robert C. Tucker, "The Revolution from Above (1928-1941)"
Biography: Walter Laqueur, "Stalin: The Glasnost Revelations." In December 2008 Liane Thomas Wade submitted this to the NCGR Commentary e-zine: "Young Stalin* by British historian, Simon Sebag Montefiore. He had access to archives recently made available in many cities, including Gori in Georgia. This includes a short memoir by Stalin's mother, Ekaterina Geladze. Stalin's given name was Josef Djugashvili. ….Stalin's birthdate has always been uncertain. But Montefiore gives Stalin's birthdate as 6 December 1878,** (page 23) Old Style Julian Calendar, which "ran thirteen days behind the New Style Gregorian Calendar used in the West... The Soviet government switched to the New Style Calendar at midnight on 31 January 1918 with the next day declared 14 February." (page xxxii). The author notes that, "Stalin later invented much about his life: his official birthday was 21 December 1879, over a year later, an invented date. He generally stuck to 6 December 1878 until an interview in 1920 with a Swedish newspaper. In 1925, he ordered his secretary Tovstukha to formalize (sic) the 1879 date. There are several explanations, including his desire to re-create himself. Most likely, he moved the date later to avoid conscription." (footnote, page 23). No birth time is discussed in the book. *Vintage Books, A Division of Random House, New York. October 2008. (Copyright 2007)
- Vocation : Politics : Heads of state (P.M. of USSR)
- Notable : Famous : Historic figure (Russian dictator)
- Notable : Book Collection : American Book