Bonaparte, Napoléon I
|Birthname||Napoleone di Buonaparte|
|born on||15 August 1769 at 11:30 (= 11:30 AM )|
|Place||Ajaccio, France, 41n55, 8e44|
|Timezone||LMT m8e44 (is local mean time)|
|Astrology data||22°46' 28°56 Asc. 06°21'|
French general and emperor, a giant figure in European history and a world cultural icon synonymous with military genius and political power. One of the greatest military strategists in history, he dominated European affairs for almost two decades while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won the large majority of his battles and seized control of most of continental Europe before his ultimate defeat at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. Well-educated and an avid reader, Napoleon Bonaparte instituted lasting reforms including higher education, a tax code, road and sewer systems, and the establishment of the Banque de France (central bank).
The fourth of thirteen children from an aristocratic Corsican family, Napoleon was teased at school by the French, and discovered at an early age the pleasures of independent military command. He entered military school at the age of ten, in 1779, earning a commission by the time he was 16.
Fighting in the revolution, by 1793 he commanded the artillery at the siege of Toulon and was promoted to brigadier general at age 24, making a friend of Robespierre. He became a striking military strategist, never retreating or blaming his losses on others. Though his tactics were brilliant, he eventually lost the war. Intending to break British trade by conquering Egypt, he captured Malta in 1798 and entered Cairo, defeating the Mamluks, Egypt's ruling military caste, at the Battle of the Pyramids, on 21 July. On 1 August 1798, the French fleet was all but destroyed in the Battle of the Nile, and Napoleon returned to France in 1799.
In Paris, he overthrew the government by a coup d'état staged on 9 November 1799 ("the 18th Brumaire" according to the revolutionary calendar), and closed down the council of five hundred. He promoted the Code Napoleon, educational reforms and made himself "first consul" for ten years, later crowned by Pope Pius VII as Napoleon I, Emperor of France on 2 December 1804 and crowning himself King of Italy on 26 May 1895. Practicing nepotism, he made each of his brothers and sisters a monarch in various countries. Between his battles and peace concords, he managed to gather vast areas under his rule invading Austria and Russia 1805-1807. He ordered a boycott of British goods and sent armies to Portugal and Spain, ending in war 1808-1814.
On 17 May 1809 the Papal States were incorporated with France and on 10 June 1809 Pope Pius VII excommunicated Napoleon. Making the mistake of invading Russia and unprepared for the harsh winter, he had to retreat from Moscow, losing men and materiel in 1813. Forced to abdicate on 4 April 1814, he was given the sovereignty of Elba, but he returned to France on 28 February 1815. The 5th Regiment flocked to him, and he entered Paris on 20 March 1815, holding the city for the period known as The Hundred Days. After the Battle of Waterloo on 18 June 1815 he once again abdicated, on 22 June 1815, and was exiled to St. Helena in the south Atlantic.
The first man to promote his image, Napoleon had china, pots, hammers, spades, fire pokers and candle holders produced with his likeness on them. A 15-foot nude statute of him was banished to the cellars of the Louvre and after his defeat it was carried off by the Duke of Wellington in 1815. At 1.68 metres, Napoleon was of average height for his time. He surrounded himself with tall bodyguards and had a nickname of 'le petit caporal' - an affectionate term reflecting his camaraderie with his soldiers rather than his physical stature.
Napoleon married Josephine, widow of the Vicomte de Beauhamais, on 9 March 1796 and they left for a military campaign in Italy. Returning to Paris, she contributed considerably to the establishment of her husband's power; however, the marriage being childless was dissolved in 1809 with her retaining the title of Empress. He married his second wife, Marie Louise, daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, on 1 April 1810. On 20 March 1811, she bore him a son, Napoleon Francis Joseph Charles (known from birth as the King of Rome and as Napoleon II in 1814). On Napoleon's abdication she returned to Austria. Napoleon acknowledged one illegitimate son: Charles Léon (1806–1881) by Eléonore Denuelle de La Plaigne. He may have had further unacknowledged illegitimate offspring like Count Alexandre Joseph Colonna-Walewski (1810–1868) by Countess Marie Walewska.
Napoleon died of stomach cancer in exile at Longwood House, St. Helena on 5 May 1821 and during an autopsy his heart was removed. He is buried in Paris. Some call him an ogre, some a hero, his legends are many and there have been thousands of books published about him. More plays and films have been produced about Napoleon than any other figure in history except Jesus.
- friend relationship with Bertrand, Henri (born 28 March 1773)
- opponent/rival/enemy relationship with Alexander I, Czar of Russia (born 23 December 1777)
- opponent/rival/enemy relationship with Maria Ludovika, Empress Consort of Austria (born 14 December 1787)
- parent->child relationship with Bonaparte, Napoléon II (born 20 March 1811)
- parent->child relationship with Charles, Count Léon (born 13 December 1806)
- parent->child relationship with Colonna-Walewski, Alexandre (born 4 May 1810)
- spouse relationship with Joséphine, Empress of France (born 23 June 1763)
- spouse relationship with Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma (born 12 December 1791)
- sibling relationship with Borghese, Pauline (born 20 October 1780)
- has other family relationship with Bonaparte, Jérôme Napoléon (born 7 July 1805). Notes: Nephew
- has other family relationship with Bonaparte, Mathilde (born 27 May 1820). Notes: Uncle/niece
- (has as) worker relationship with Charles XIV, King of Sweden (born 26 January 1763)
- (has as) worker relationship with Murat, Joachim (born 25 March 1767). Notes: Brother-in-law
- compare to chart of Drain, Émile (born 1 February 1890). Notes: Drain played Napoléon in 3 films
- compare to chart of Historic: Rouget de Lisle's "Marseillaise" (born 26 April 1792). Notes: changed title of Marseillaise
- compare to chart of Military: Battle of Waterloo (born 18 June 1815)
- compare to chart of Nation: France 1789:Revolution Conjunction Jup-Ura (born 29 June 1789)
- role played of/by Dieudonné, Albert (born 26 November 1889). Notes: Dieudonné played Bonaparte in 1927 film, "Napoléon"
- Social : Begin a program of study 1779 (Entered military school)
- Work : New Career 1793 (Promoted to Brigadier General)
- Work : Gain social status 1798 (Captured Malta)
- Social : Return Home 1799 (Returned to France)
- Work : Gain social status 1804 (Emperor of France)
- Work : Gain social status 1805 (King of Italy)
- Relationship : Divorce dates 1809 (Josephine, marriage dissolved)
Roscoe Hope in AA, 4/1980 quotes Alison in "History of Napoleon" from family sources, accepted as authentic by Dr. Richard Garnett, Curator of Books at the British Museum.
Steinbrecher quotes a note in hand from the Department De La Corse du Sud, Direction des Services d'Archives, Ajaccio, France, "Napolean's baptismal certificate shows no birth time. Besides, he was not baptized until two years later when one of his sisters was. Contemporary chroniclers generally use 11:00 AM, the mother having gone into labor while in church."
Andre Barbault's Traite Pratique de Astrologique gives 11:00 AM "according to Memoires du Conseiller T. Nasica, Magistrat a Ajaccio de 1821 a 1829."
Biography by Felix Markham, "Napoleon,"(http://penguinputnam.com), gives the date of August 15, 1769, Ajaccio in Corsica, p.16.
These data are put to debate with evidence presented in December 2001 by Mary Brett Ashley, who has a degree in history and substantial credentials as a scholar on Napoleonic and military history, plus three more years of additional studies on Napoleon. She is a consultant for ABC television to provide research for 20/20 specials and a few papers on Napoleonic history. She writes, "I have written to both Ajaccio and Corte for copies of these relevant certificates (as Dr. Weider cannot give me his as he is currently collaborating on another book which brings this to light as well as Napoleon's true lineage-which I strongly suspect contains more French genes than heretofore known) more on this later-"
She further writes, "Although Napoleon's Birthday is recognized as Aug 15 - indeed, his true birthday is Jan 7 1768, Corte, Corsica. His father was going to send him to military school in France but Napoleon was too old, so his father took his brother Joseph's birthday of Aug 15 1769 and switched so that Napoleon could enter Brienne.
This is substantiated by historical records in Corsica where Joseph was born on Aug 15 and the child Napoleon was actually born on Jan 7. As I have studied Napoleon extensively for the past 15 years, his personal habits,characteristics, etc...from personal histories, those personal histories written by his contemporaries, friends, assoctiates, etc...he fits more the basic Capricornian nature as well."
Ashley quotes a website of Richard R. Orsinger, Copyright © 1997, which states in its time line of Napolean:
1764 Charles Marie Buonaparte, a Corsican of Tuscan descent, marries Letizia Ramolino, a Corsican of Florentine descent. These are the parents of Napoleon
Buonaparte. Louis Charles Rene de Marbuef, Napoleon's true father and Governor of Corsica.
1769 Napoleone Buonaparte born in Ajaccio, Corsica, the son of a poor Corsican lawyer. Napoleon later adopts August 15 as his birthday, to coincide with the Catholic Feast of the Assumption. (http://www.txdirect.net/users/rrichard/napoleo1.htm)
Bourriene was Napoleon’s lifelong friend and secretary and the author of his memoirs in four volumes that he wrote after Napoleon’s death.
"Bonaparte et Son Temps", Colonel Iung
Tome I, pp 39-52
"The first 2 children of Charles Bonaparte-a son born in 1765 and a daughter born in1767-both died young. A third child, a son was born on 7th January 1768 at Corte, Corsica; and a fourth child, also a son was born on 15th August, 1769 at Ajaccio.
"There is no doubt as to these dates, or as to Joseph and Napoleon being the two sons so born. By the copy of an "Acte de Naissance", preserved in the French War Office, the child born on 7th January 1768 was baptized "Nabulione."
"A copy of a non-existing original record of baptism at Ajaccio, gives the name of the child then born as "Joseph Nabulion"
"When, in 1778, Charles Bonaparte obtained permission for one son to enter Brienne at the cost of the state, finding that the age of the child must be under 10 years, and Napoleon, (as the eldest and therefore the son chosen to enter) being over the age, he used the baptismal record of the second son for the first Napoleon.
The name Joseph, in the Ajaccio certificate is given in French at a time when the French language was not in use in Corsica.
"Another reason for the change in date is the wish to appear by birth to be a French citizen, Corsica not having been annexed to France until June 1769.
"In 1794, when Joseph Bonaparte married Mademoiselle Clary, the witnesses brought to prove his age and place of birth, testified that Joseph (about age 25) was born at Ajaccio, at the place where the son was born on 15th August 1769.
"In the marriage contract of Napoleon and Josephine, his date of birth is given as 5th February 1768 while she, really born on 23rd of July 1763, is stated to have been born on 23rd June 1767, the ages of the pair being thus made to approximate, instead of a real difference of at least 5 years."
- Diagnoses : Major Diseases : Cancer (Terminal)
- Family : Childhood : Advantaged (Aristocratic family)
- Family : Childhood : Family large (13 kids (including 1 stillborn))
- Family : Childhood : Order of birth (4th of 13)
- Family : Relationship : Number of Divorces (One)
- Family : Relationship : Number of Marriages (Two)
- Family : Parenting : Kids 1-3 (2 acknowledged)
- Lifestyle : Work : Same Job more than 10 yrs (Ten years as Emperor of France)
- Lifestyle : Work : Start young less than 16 (Military commission at 16)
- Lifestyle : Work : Stressful work
- Personal : Religion/Spirituality : Western (Christian, Roman Catholic)
- Personal : Death : Illness/ Disease (Cancer)
- Vocation : Military : Combat
- Vocation : Military : Military career (Commision by age 16)
- Vocation : Politics : Heads of state (Emperor of France, King of France)
- Notable : Extraordinary Talents : For Leadership
- Notable : Famous : Historic figure (Military strategist)
- Notable : Famous : Top 5% of Profession (Greatest military strategist in history)
- Notable : Book Collection : American Book