|Birthname||Aleksandr Sergeevich Pushkin|
|born on||26 May 1799 Jul.Cal. (6 June 1799 greg.)|
|Place||Moscow, Russian Federation, 55n45, 37e35|
|Timezone||LMT m37e35 (is local mean time)|
Russian writer, known and respected. A promising student, Pushkin was selected at age 12 to be among the 30 students in the first class at the Lyceum in Tsarskoe Selo . In the following six years, he received the best education available in Russia at the time, and had his first essay published in 1814, at the age of 15. After graduating, he was given a sinecure in the Collegium of Foreign Affairs in Petersburg. He immersed himself in both the intellectual and literary circles of the city, but in a carefree, lighthearted pursuit of pleasure. His "revolutionary" poems emerged between 1817 and 1820 at the same time that he was working on his first large-scale work, "Ruslan and Liudmila."
In April 1820, his political poems led to an interrogation by the Petersburg governor-general and then to exile to South Russia, under the guise of an administrative transfer in the service, departing on 5/06/1820. During his three years in Kishinev, Pushkin wrote his first Byronic verse tales, "The Prisoner of the Caucasus" (1820-1821), "The Bandit Brothers (1821-1822), and "The Fountain of Bakhchisaray" (1821-1823). He also wrote "Gavriiliada" (1821), a light approach to the Annunciation, and he started his novel in verse, "Eugene Onegin" (1823-1831).
Friends in high places helped him to get a transfer in July 1823 to Odessa, where he engaged in theatre going, social outings, and love affairs with two married women. His literary output continued but his political and religious views were still subject to suspicion. After officials intercepted a letter, he was once more banished, this time to his mother's estate of Mikhaylovskoe in north Russia. From August 1824, for two years, he was under surveillance, virtually imprisoned in the village. Though far from Petersburg, he was implicated in the uprising of 12/14/1825. His petition to be heard by the Czar led to an interview with Nicholas I, who released him from exile on 9/08/1826.
His thoughts of liberation soon proved to be illusory when Pushkin found that he was required to report his location and minute activities to the Chief of Gendarmes. He was effectively on parole and under political suspicion.
When Pushkin selected a bride, as a wedding gift, his father gave him half the estate of Kistenevo. When he arrived there in September 1830, he was detained for three months by a cholera quarantine. This time of forced restraint turned out to be the most productive of his life in literary output. He married the beautiful Natalia Goncharova, whom he had met two years prior, in Moscow on 2/18/1831. In October, he and his wife moved to an apartment in Petersburg, where they lived for the remainder of his life. They became involved in court society, attending functions and balls. The expenses of their lifestyle and the addition of Natalia’s two unmarried sisters to their household in late 1834 put a strain on Pushkin’s income for which he was not equipped. His father’s estate had been mismanaged, and his brother had heedless debts, all contributing to financial straits. He attempted to publish a journal, but it turned into another money-loss, involving him in further debt.
Mme. Pushkin had a miscarriage in March 1834. A noted beauty, she loved the attention of court life and was a coquette with her admirers, including the Czar himself. In 1834, a handsome Frenchman began a two-year pursuit that became so obvious that Pushkin was considered a cuckold. He challenged d’Anthes to a duel. The encounter was postponed by the marriage of the French royalist to Mme. Pushkin’s sister Ekaterina. Pushkin refused to attend the 1837 wedding of his new brother-in-law. Within two weeks, d’Anthes made an overt attempt of seduction of Mme. Pushkin, and the duel went ahead on 1/27/1837. D'Anthes fired first, and Pushkin was mortally wounded; after he fell, he summoned the strength to fire his shot and to wound, slightly, his adversary. Pushkin died two days later, on January 29.
As Pushkin lay dying, and after his death, except for a few friends, court society sympathized with d'Anthes, but thousands of people of all other social levels came to Pushkin's apartment to express sympathy and to mourn. The government obviously feared a political demonstration. To prevent public display, the funeral was shifted from St. Isaac's Cathedral to the small Royal Stables Church, with admission by ticket only to members of the court and diplomatic society. And then his body was sent away, in secret and at midnight. He was buried beside his mother at dawn on 2/06/1837 at Svyatye Gory Monastery, near Mikhaylovskoe.
- Work : Published/ Exhibited/ Released 1814 (First essay published)
LMR quotes an article for the date; time unknown (May 26, 1799 OS)
- Family : Relationship : Stress - Chronic misery (Wife courted by other men)
- Lifestyle : Financial : On the edge (Family indebtedness)
- Passions : Criminal Victim : Homicide victim (Shot and killed in duel)
- Vocation : Writers : Poet (Verse novels)