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Jung on Astrology

Selected and introduced by Safron Rossi and Keiron Le Grice

The following is an extract from Carl Gustav Jung, Jung on Astrology, selected and introduced by Safron Rossi and Keiron Le Grice (Abingdon, UK: Routledge, 2017). Introduction © Safron Rossi and Keiron Le Grice. Reprinted with permission from Routledge.


C.G. JungThe astrological horoscope, Carl Jung observed in a letter of 1954, “corresponds to a definite moment in the colloquy of the gods, that is to say the psychic archetypes.”1 This statement, one of many similar assertions made throughout his life, is illustrative of Jung’s belief that astrology can provide symbolic insight into the workings of the human psyche. Astrological charts, cast for specific moments in time, might be construed as something like a symbolic portrayal of the universal principles, or archetypes, once personified by the gods and goddesses of ancient myth. Indeed, astrology, Jung remarked in a letter to Sigmund Freud, “seems indispensable for a proper understanding of mythology.”2 However, despite Jung’s abiding personal interest in astrology, and his serious exploration of it, his views on the subject have received scant attention from scholars in the field of depth psychology. By contrast, Jung’s ideas have been readily embraced by many practicing astrologers and authors of astrology books, perhaps in the hope that the association with Jung might lend to astrology a degree of credibility otherwise lacking, given the natural affinity between the two fields. This book—a compilation of Jung’s writings in this area—is intended for readers in both depth psychology and astrology. Yet the ideas explored herein are also relevant to any of us searching for deeper life meaning and a greater sense of order in life or for a way to explore the mysteries of human experience.

Questions of the human being’s place within the cosmos, of the limits of rationality and causal determinism, and of the scope of human free will and the existence of what was once recognized as the workings of fate or destiny remain critically relevant to us today. Now, as in other periods of our recent past, the challenges of our historical moment impress upon us the need to better recognize and work in harmony with the greater forces, both psychological and physical, shaping our lives. “We know nothing of man,” Jung proclaimed in an interview near the end of this life, and it is this unconsciousness of human nature, especially our capacity for destruction and evil, that, he believed, poses the greatest threat to our existence—and perhaps today even to the planet’s.3 No less significant is the need to find sources of individual life meaning and orientation for our future direction, given the increasing secularism of the modern world, with the much-discussed absence of myth and decline in religious belief. In giving his attention to the symbolism, practice, and theoretical understanding of astrology, Jung grappled with each of these concerns. The results of his exploration of astrology, recorded in various places in his Collected Works and his other less formal writing, are set before you in this volume.

Jung on Astrology
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Astrology held Jung’s interest throughout most of his life, evident as early as 1911 in correspondence with Freud (“my evenings are taken up very largely with astrology”4 ) to his many letters on this topic from the late 1950s. Jung’s writing in this area is of historical import too, revealing Jung’s engagement with astrology as one notable element of a burgeoning cultural interest in the irrational and psychological exploration in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a movement out of which depth psychology itself arose. At a biographical level, Jung’s fascination with astrology, and with other aspects of the occult, was a contributory factor in his professional and personal break from Freud in early 1913. Jung’s interest in matters astrological was to continue in the decades to follow, especially evident in seminars given in the late 1920s and 1930s, and then in letters and formal writing from the 1950s, in connection with synchronicity (the phenomenon of “meaningful coincidence”), modern physics, and reflections on the mind-matter relationship. Although not treated in a dedicated volume of the Collected Works, astrology occupied Jung’s attention for a fifty-year period as he ruminated on its workings and applied it to illuminate both individual psychology and the evolution of mythic symbolism within Western civilization.5

Such is the interconnection between astrology and Jungian ideas that the compilation of Jung’s writings on this topic also constitutes an excursion into many, if not all, of the central aspects of his psychology, encompassing his theories of archetypes and the collective unconscious, individuation, synchronicity, the Self and mandala symbolism, alchemy, myth, the evolution of the God-image, and more. Perhaps this range is not so surprising when we take into account Jung’s view that astrology represents “the sum of all the psychological knowledge of antiquity.”6 For it could be argued that in certain respects Jungian psychology represents a modern articulation of the concerns of symbolic systems and practices omitted from the modern scientific worldview—astrology and alchemy chief among them. At root, both astrology and Jungian psychology might be seen as being engaged with the critical task of developing greater self-knowledge, of bringing to awareness the unconscious factors underlying our life experience. In Jung’s view, astrology—whatever else it might be—is a symbolic language of archetypes, the formative principles and patterns in the depths of the unconscious mind.

While numerous astrological books have drawn on perspectives and ideas in Jungian psychology, as noted far less is known about Jung’s own thoughts on astrology, which are often buried within discussions of other ideas and scattered throughout his many publications. This book is intended to address the need for an exposition of his ideas within a single volume, allowing Jung to speak for himself, as it were, and thus perhaps to allow us to extricate Jung’s own thoughts on astrology from the ways Jungian ideas have been used by astrological writers. It is hoped that the book will allow readers to see for themselves Jung’s enduring fascination with the topic, and to read firsthand his own reflections on it, so as to be able to evaluate astrology’s significance within the larger corpus of his work and assess its potential relevance for our time.

What is Astrology?

Simply stated, astrology is the practice of interpreting the meaning of observed correlations between human experience and the positions, interrelationships, and cycles of the planets (including the sun and the moon) in the solar system. The movements and positions of the planets are plotted against the zodiac, a symbolic frame of reference based on the ecliptic, the line formed by the apparent movement of sun around the Earth over the course of a year—this apparent movement, of course, as astronomers have known since the Copernican Revolution, is a result of the Earth’s orbit around the sun. In astrology, the ecliptic forms the center-line of an imaginary band, extending eight to nine  degrees above and below it. The zodiacal band, as it is called, is divided into twelve thirty-degree segments, which comprise the well-known signs of the zodiac: Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius, and Pisces. The signs belong to one of four elements—Fire, Earth, Air, and Water—and are thought to possess qualities in keeping with the nature of the element. For example, Fire signs (Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius) are deemed to be energetic, warm, enthusiastic, inspirational, and often extraverted; whereas Water signs (Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces) are associated with emotional sensitivity, compassion, inwardness, and depth of feeling. The qualities of the signs are thought to influence the astrological meanings and principles associated with each of the orbiting planets as they appear to move around the zodiac through each sign in turn. The planets themselves are symbolically associated with certain dynamic principles and powers. Jung likened them to gods and archetypes, whereas the signs might be construed as something like modes of being or archetypal styles manifest in enduring personality traits. Traditional astrology was concerned only with the seven “planets” known to classical antiquity—the sun, the moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. Contemporary astrology, in many of its forms, has incorporated into its symbolism and practice the so-called modern planets, discovered since the late eighteenth century: Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto.7

ZodiacAs seen from any viewpoint on Earth, each planet in its orbit appears to pass in turn through each sign of the zodiac such that at any given moment a planet will be positioned in one particular sign, forming a configuration of relationships with the other planets, known as aspects. For instance, if two planets appear close to each other in the zodiac, within a range of about ten to twelve degrees (a conjunction), this is deemed significant, indicating that the principles and qualities associated with those planets are in a powerful, dynamic relationship, stimulating and blending with each other. Similarly, two planets approximately opposite each other in the zodiac are also considered to be in a potent, challenging, and often antagonistic relationship (an opposition), as are those planets close to 90 degrees apart (a square). Other geometric relationships, such as those based on 120 degrees (trine) and 60 degrees (sextile), are also considered. All the planets and their interrelationships are depicted in an astrological chart calculated for any given moment in time.

Alongside the annual passage of the sun around the zodiac, astrology utilizes another frame of reference based upon our experience of the sun’s apparent daily motion across the sky, generated by the Earth’s daily rotation on its axis. The line of the sun’s journey over the course of a day forms a circle, which is divided into twelve equal sections known as houses, with each house designating a different field of experience or area of life. For example, the second house is traditionally thought to relate to finances, the sixth house to health, the eight to death, and the ninth house to travel. In casting an astrological chart—or horoscope, as it is known—the moment of sunrise on the eastern horizon determines the sign of the ascendant (the start of the first house); sunset, the western horizon, correlates with the descendant or start of the seventh house, with the medium coeli (the midheaven), the highest point of the chart, and imum coeli, the lowest point, symbolically representing noon and midnight, respectively.8 Although astrology incorporates a vast and complex array of variables, the planets, signs of the zodiac, houses, and aspects are usually considered to be the most significant factors in astrological interpretations, or chart readings, as they are commonly known.9

Perhaps the most popular form of astrology practiced today, outside of newspaper horoscope columns, is natal astrology—astrological horoscopes cast for the moment of birth. Based on the relative positions and placements of the planets at birth, the astrologer synthesizes the meaning of the various factors in the chart to give a portrait of the individual’s character and biographical experiences. The birth-chart reading is often augmented by the study of the ongoing movements of the planets in relation to each other as they traverse the zodiac, using methods known as transits and progressions. These methods can be used to gain insight into the qualities of particular periods of time—past, present, or future—and to understand the kinds of experiences and events one might encounter at these times. Historically, astrology has often been used for prediction, most famously, of course, by Nostradamus, whose prophecies were considered by Jung in a chapter in Aion, which is included in Part III of this book.

Astrology in the Western World

Western astrology, with which Jung was concerned almost exclusively, is thought to have originated in Mesopotamia, the “cradle of civilization,” around 3400 BCE.10 From there, it was transmitted to Egypt and to Greece and Rome, assimilating the character of the deities of these traditions in a form of mythic syncretism, with the planets ultimately taking on the names of the well-known Roman gods and goddesses—Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn.11 After a period of suppression by the Church, when Christianity became established as the official religion of the Roman Empire, astrology underwent a revival during the Middle Ages and flourished again during the Renaissance, with Marsilio Ficino (1433–1499) an influential figure, before its exclusion from serious intellectual thought after the Enlightenment and the rise of science.

The beginnings of modern Western astrology have been traced to the British theosophist Alan Leo (1860–1917), writing at the turn of the twentieth century (indeed, Jung notes the close connection between astrology and theosophy around that time). The theosophical influence on the direction of modern astrology continued with the work of Marc Edmund Jones (1888–1980) and then Dane Rudhyar (1895–1985), whose astrological writings date from the 1930s, following his emigration from France to the U.S.12 All three figures were influential in the formation of a psychological or spiritual approach to astrology, in distinction to those forms of practice concerned with the literal prediction of events. Today, psychological astrology, which possesses the most explicit connections to Jungian thought, is one of multiple forms of contemporary astrological practice. Astrology is variously characterized by a range of descriptors, designating its distinct approaches and applications, including mundane (the astrology of world events), horary (answering specific questions), electional (finding the best time for a planned event), traditional, predictive, divinatory, psychological, evolutionary, spiritual, and most recently archetypal. For some practitioners, astrology is to be viewed as a divinatory method akin to the I Ching and Tarot. For others, it is a way to develop psychological insight and a source of mythic meaning. Some commentators see it primarily of interest historically, for understanding connections to our cultural past; others see certain forms of astrology as critically relevant today, both in preserving the psychological wisdom of previous eras, and in offering an alternative to the disenchanted worldview of modernity.

CopernicusEspecially in academia and science, the prevailing view today, however, is that astrology is a pseudoscience, whose premises are incompatible with the accepted scientific understandings of the nature of reality. Although three of the progenitors of the modern scientific era, Copernicus, Galileo and Kepler, were themselves involved in astrology (in the period of the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries in which astronomy and astrology were still a single discipline), the direction of scientific development thereafter pushed astrology outside the margins of the accepted paradigmatic boundaries of intellectual discourse, where it remains.13 One central element in the debunking of astrology is the absence of a satisfactory causal explanation, in terms of known forces, as to how planets could influence human beings on Earth. Other critiques concern the apparent lack of empirical evidence to substantiate astrology’s truth-claims, a critique Jung himself made and sought to address.

More broadly, with its apparent perpetuation of archaic notions of fate and predestination, astrology is at odds with a number of foundational assumptions of the modern worldview, such as the belief in rational self-determination and causality. If we are self-determining agents, with the capacity to shape the future through acts of free will, how can our lives be fated and controlled by the movements of the planets in the solar system? If our lives can be understood through the study of prior causes (such as genetics, early conditioning, and the environment), how can astrology also influence our experience, especially given that there is no significant demonstrable causal connection between the planets and human beings? Moreover, how can the signs of the zodiac, arbitrarily derived from a physically non-existent frame of reference, and no longer in alignment with the constellations of stars after which they were named, have any bearing on events and experiences on Earth? Astrology’s apparent assumption of a geocentric rather than a heliocentric cosmology also seemingly places it at odds with the findings of science since the Copernican Revolution, although astrologers stress that adopting a geocentric perspective does not contradict the astronomical reality of a sun-centered solar system but only symbolically reflects the vantage point of individuals on Earth.

Taken together, such objections constitute a formidable barrier to the consideration of astrology, not only in terms of appraising the intellectual argument for its validity, but also because of the emotional investment in assumptions at the core of the consensus understanding of the nature of reality in the modern West, assumptions that astrology appears to flagrantly contradict. Astrology, as Richard Tarnas has noted, is today often seen as the “gold-standard of superstition.”14 For all the seeming irrationality of astrology, though, Jung believed it to be of great value, for he was struck most of all that astrology, however it might ultimately be conceptualized and explained, somehow works, in that it discloses, in a symbolic celestial language, information and insights about the psychology, and thus the “fates,” of human beings.

The Significance of Jungian Psychology in Astrology

The influence of Jungian thought in psychological astrology has been pivotal. It has provided a theoretical orientation for its practitioners that includes a recognition of the reality of the unconscious and the importance of the symbolic for understanding the psyche, giving access to the archetypal imagination and its divine data. Jungian psychology has recovered the value of mythological ideas and revived a sense of cosmological meaning. When the celestial realm is held as a meaningful mirror to the soul, there one experiences a sense of alignment with the deeper levels of life, as well as a sense of being a small part of a greater consciousness. Prominent psychological astrologers and authors who cite Jung as an authority and have used Jungian ideas in their work include Liz Greene, Stephen Arroyo, Karen Hamaker-Zondag, Alice O. Howell, and Richard Tarnas. Whereas these astrologers each have their unique approaches to articulating Jung’s thought in relation to astrology, generally speaking we find there are three main ways in which Jungian psychology has been employed: as a guide to psychological interpretation of astrological factors; as a way to emphasize psychological development (rather than offer prediction, as in traditional astrology); and for setting forth the theoretical assumptions behind astrology.

ElementsThat Jung’s analytical psychology has become a touchstone for the interpretation of astrological factors is evidenced by the many books that attempt to synthesize the two fields. One place where the fields meet is in the supposed manner astrological elements and zodiac signs correspond to Jung’s four psychological types. Whereas Jung opened the door between typology and other ancient theories of character classification, he didn’t pursue the typological correlation to astrology, yet surprisingly this is perhaps the primary way Jungian ideas have shaped modern astrological thought. Writing in the mid-1970s, Stephen Arroyo was one of the first astrologers to link Jung’s psychology of archetypes and astrology, as well as Jung’s theory of psychological types and the four astrological elements. Jung’s theory of typology was also correlated to the astrological elements by Jungian analyst and astrologer Liz Greene in her book Relating. She writes, “Jung’s four function types fit hand in glove with astrology’s ancient division of the four elements. It is not a case of one being explained away by, or derived from, the other; rather, each is a distinct way of describing the empiric observations of the same phenomena.”15 Like Arroyo, Greene relates the element air to the thinking type, water to the feeling type, earth to the sensation type, and fire to the intuitive type. These type-to-element correlations have become canonical in psychological astrology. Karen Hamaker-Zondag, also a Jungian analyst and astrologer, has likewise written in depth on the correspondence between Jung’s typology and the elements.

Jung’s concept of the shadow and its relation to the planet Saturn is another example of psycho-astrological synthesis. Personifying the negative side of the personality, the shadow is composed of those aspects that one represses and hides from oneself, often experienced in projection. Jung said that owning one’s shadow, and reconciling to it in some manner, is the first step of psychological work, for within the darkest aspects of our nature lies the potential for integration and wholeness. Saturn is associated with the processes of contraction, limitation, as well as discipline, fear, and the prima materia of alchemical work. At the same time, Saturn is the wise old one, the master, the great teacher. Both of these faces can be seen in the concept of the shadow. The correspondences are most notably explored in two of Liz Greene’s books Saturn: A New Look at An Old Devil and Relating: An Astrological Guide to Living with Others on a Small Planet. She writes,

The position of Saturn on the birth chart suggests a sphere of the individual’s life in which he has been somehow stunted, or arrested in growth, in which he may well feel inadequate, oversensitive or clumsy . . . [as] the unconscious side of personality is built up partially of those qualities which belong to us but which we cannot, or dare not, express. We may thus infer from the placement of Saturn that area where the shadow will express itself most readily, where one is perhaps the most defensive and critical of others, and where one is most liable to attract the hostility and opposition of the environment because of one’s own unconscious attitude of inferiority.16

Alice O. Howell, Jungian analyst and astrologer, has also written about the relationship between the darker and repressed aspects of the psyche and Saturn’s archetypal influence:

When Saturn pairs up with any other planetary process and furthers its negative expression you will find one of the ‘seven deadly sins’ or, psychologically expressed, one of the repressed or suppressed complexes. . . . Complexes are not in themselves sins but the results of processes which have been in intense internal conflict, for one reason or another, causing the go to suffer a lack of harmony and self-acceptance.17

Saturn While these darker faces of Saturn signify its importance in a chart, its role in individuation is paramount. It is through Saturn that we learn what the soul most deeply needs, and Saturn as the wise old man is also the teacher whose lessons bring opportunities for profound growth and maturity.18 Saturn is both what is working us and that part of our psyche that must be worked. As Jung often noted, the shadow is the doorway into the unconscious. In metaphorical terms, it is lead (Saturn) that is transformed into gold by those arduous and wondrous alchemical processes with which Jung was so concerned.

Astrology, as a guide to psychological development, is expressed in a number of ways, foremost being the perspective that the birth chart is symbolic of an individual’s character structure, revealing how people experience life, the nature of their complexes, and their calling. Alice Howell writes that the birth chart is, in potentia, a treasure map to the individuation process or greater awareness of the Self, and I am using Self in Jung’s definition of the word as meaning the center and totality of the psyche. The chart will impel us unconsciously, as do our complexes, until we become more conscious.19

Thus working with one’s chart as a symbol becomes a tool for psychological growth for one can explore with some objectivity one’s character, wounds, challenges, and calling. Furthermore, from this perspective the regular transits (and progressions) that one experiences, particularly transits of the outer planets, are understood to function as thresholds of transformations of consciousness. Correlating in some instances to natural stages of aging and development, the planetary transits reflect psychological stages and opportunities for growth. This is related to Jung’s concept of individuation, which is often imagined as a spiritual journey wherein unconscious and conscious elements of the psyche become integrated.

Last, some of Jung’s ideas have become critical in working with the theoretical assumptions behind astrology. The influence of Jung’s ontological understanding of the archetypal basis of reality and the role of synchronicity in the emerging astrological worldview is best articulated currently in archetypal cosmology and archetypal astrology, a field pioneered by Richard Tarnas. In Cosmos and Psyche, Tarnas draws on these two foundational Jungian concepts and outlines a worldview anchored in archetypal patterns and their synchronistic informing of life. This worldview is easily merged with the astrological paradigm: “Between the astronomical and human is an archetypally informed synchronicity.”20 This emphasis on synchronicity is one of the most important contributions of Jung’s thought to contemporary development and research in astrology, one which is introduced in greater detail in Part IV of this volume.

Arroyo’s thoughts on what astrology offers summarizes the main sensibilities of a Jungian psychological approach to astrology. Contemporary Western people, he observes, have “lost touch with the archetypal foundation of [their] being and with the source of support and spiritual-psychological nourishment which they provide. Astrology can be used as a way of reuniting man with his innermost self, with nature, and with the evolutionary process of the universe.”21 In this respect, psychological astrology is broadly consistent with the aims of Jungian analytical psychology.

Organization of the Book

Among the possible ways the material might have been presented to the reader, we chose to organize by theme rather than chronologically or by reproducing Jung’s writings on astrology as they appear volume by volume. In many of his reflections, scattered throughout the Collected Works and elsewhere, Jung proffers an eclectic assortment of thoughts on the topic, intermingled with reflections on other subjects. On occasion, he even shifts his position on explanations of astrology within the space of a single chapter or section. While such fluctuations are of themselves noteworthy, they are not conducive to clear understanding and there is little in the way of a consistent evolution of his ideas on astrology leading to a settled position, which might have justified placing the ideas in strict chronological sequence. Thus, rather than presenting Jung’s words in the entire context in which they appear in the source texts, we extracted particular sentences or paragraphs, where appropriate, in order to arrange the material in discrete themed parts and chapters, although material in one section unavoidably overlaps with that in other sections. The reader can refer to the original sources if a fuller appreciation of original context is needed. In organizing the material by theme, we hoped to achieve a logical continuity of ideas and as much coherence as possible.

Memories Although certain passages have been omitted to minimize repetition, almost all of Jung’s writing on astrology is incorporated into this volume, sourced from the Collected Works, his transcribed seminars (Visions, Nietzsche’s Zarathustra, and Dream Analysis), C. G. Jung Speaking, the two volumes of C. G. Jung Letters, the Freud-Jung Letters, the Red Book, and Jung’s autobiography, Memories, Dreams, Reflections. One omission is the statistical data and results from Jung’s ill-conceived astrology experiment, which is presented in full in the monograph “Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle.” Rather than repeat in its entirety the description of the experiment, which is notable primarily for its methodological flaws and statistical errors, we chose instead to include only select material on the rationale behind the experiment and the conclusions Jung drew from it.

More material from the volumes on alchemy might have been included in this book, too, but in our estimation astrological symbolism in alchemy can be more appropriately approached through a study of the latter; in most cases, Jung’s astrological references in his alchemical writings can only be adequately appreciated in the context of the often complicated exegeses and interpretations in Psychology and Alchemy, Alchemical Studies, and Mysterium Coniunctionis. Nonetheless, we have included here select material from these books, such as Jung’s reflections on heimarmene as astrological fate and archetypal compulsion.

The four parts of the book are ordered such that foundational and contextual material is given first (Part I), followed by Jung’s writing on astrological symbolism (Part II), next focusing on Jung’s extensive treatment of the significance of the precession of the equinoxes in Aion and elsewhere (Part III), and turning last to a systematic exposition of Jung’s multiple and sometimes conflicting explanations of astrology (Part IV). The Appendix contains an astrological interpretation of Jung’s birth chart written by his second-eldest daughter, Gret Baumann-Jung. Each part opens with an editor’s introduction, giving some orientation to the material to follow, accompanied where necessary by explanatory comments and analysis.

What emerges, in bringing together Jung’s reflections, is a more complete sense of the significant place astrology occupied in his thinking. In a letter to Freud in 1911, Jung promised that he would return from his explorations of astrology and the occult “laden with rich booty for our knowledge of the human psyche.”22 The compilation of writings in this book show the extent to which Jung was able to realize this intention.

Keiron Le Grice and Safron Rossi
December 2016

1 Jung to André Barbault, 26 May 1954, in Letters II, pp. 175–177.
2 Jung to Sigmund Freud, 8 May 1911 (254J), in Freud/Jung Letters, p. 183.
3 Jung, “Face to Face Interview,” with John Freeman, in C. G. Jung Speaking, p. 436.
4 Jung to Sigmund Freud, 12 June 1911, in Letters I, p. 24.
5 For a detailed study of the sources from which Jung developed his understanding of astrology, and the figures who influenced his views, see Liz Greene’s forthcoming monograph. Jung’s Studies in Astrology. For a companion volume discussing Jung’s use of astrological symbolism as a method of hermeneutics in The Red Book, see Greene, The Astrological World of Jung’s Liber Novus.
6  Jung, “Richard Wilhelm: In Memoriam” (1930) in Spirit in Man, Art, and Literature (CW 15), p. 81.
7  In astronomy, following the discovery of Eris and other planet-like bodies in the outer reaches of the solar system, Pluto was reclassified as a dwarf planet in 2006, although this change of status is not considered to affect its significance in astrology. See Le Grice, Discovering Eris.
8 Jung employs variant spellings of the terms ascendant and descendant in his writing.
9  There are references to each of these factors in the chapters to follow, although Jung, it should be noted, does not always use the terms accurately.
10  Jung admits, “I know far too little about Indian and Chinese astrology” (Jung, Aion, p. 93).
11  For detail on the origins and history of Western astrology, see Campion, History of Western Astrology; Tester, History of Western Astrology; Whitfield, Astrology; Barton, Ancient Astrology; and Bobrick, Fated Sky.
12  Rudhyar’s The Astrology of Personality, synthesizing Jungian ideas, the philosophy of holism, and theosophy, was published in 1936.
13  For a discussion of the astrological interests of Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler, see Campion, History of Western Astrology, vol. 2.
14  Tarnas, cited in Le Grice, “Birth of a New Discipline,” p. 7
15  Greene, Relating, p. 53.
16  Greene, Relating, p. 99.
17  Howell, Jungian Symbolism in Astrology, p. 176.
18  See Rossi, “Saturn in C. G. Jung’s Liber Primus.”
19  Howell, Jungian Symbolism in Astrology, p. 6.
20  Tarnas, Cosmos and Psyche, p. 69.
21  Arroyo, Astrology, Psychology, and the Four Elements, p. 29.
22  Jung to Sigmund Freud, 8 May 1911 (254J), in Freud/Jung Letters, p. 183.

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Image sources:
C.G. Jung: By unknown, upload by Adrian Michael (Ortsmuseum Zollikon) Jung 1910: By Prints & Photographs Division Library of Congress (Commons File:Jung 1910-rotated.jpg) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Zodiac: CC0 Creative Commons license via pixabay.com
Elements: CC0 Creative Commons license via pixabay.com
Saturn: Polidoro da Caravaggio [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Current Planets
24-Feb-2018, 12:59 UT/GMT
Mercury1149' 4"8s28
Mars1736' 4"22s30
TrueNode1448' 7"16n23
Explanations of the symbols
Chart of the moment
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