|born on||5 December 1867 at 10:28 (= 10:28 AM )|
|Place||Vilnius, Lithuania, 54n41, 25e19|
|Timezone||LMT m25e19 (is local mean time)|
|Astrology data||12°48' 23°26 Asc. 13°09'|
Polish statesman; Chief of State (1918–22), "First Marshal" (from 1920), and leader (1926–35) of the Second Polish Republic. From mid-World War I he had a major influence in Poland's politics, and was an important figure on the European political scene. He was the person most responsible for the creation of the Second Republic of Poland in 1918, 123 years after it had been taken over by Russia, Austria and Prussia. Under Piłsudski, Poland annexed Vilnius from Lithuania following Żeligowski's Mutiny but was unable to incorporate most of his Lithuanian homeland into the newly resurrected Polish State. He believed in a multicultural Poland with recognition of numerous ethnic and religious nationalities. His arch-rival Roman Dmowski by contrast called for a purified Poland based on Polish-speaking Catholics with little role for minorities.
Early in his political career, Piłsudski became a leader of the Polish Socialist Party. Concluding that Poland's independence would have to be won by force of arms, he created the Polish Legions. In 1914 he anticipated the outbreak of a European war, the Russian Empire's defeat by the Central Powers, and the Central Powers' defeat by the western powers. When World War I broke out, he and his Legions fought under Austrian army control against Russia. In 1917, with Russia faring badly in the war, he withdrew his support from the Central Powers and was arrested by the Germans.
From November 1918, when Poland regained independence, until 1922 Piłsudski was Poland's Chief of State. In 1919–21 he commanded Poland's forces in six border wars that shaped the nation of Poland. His forces seemed almost defeated in the Polish-Soviet War when they fought the battle for Warsaw in August 1920. In the "miracle on the Vistula," they routed five Russian armies and saved Poland. In 1923, with the government dominated by his opponents, particularly the National Democrats, he withdrew from active politics. Three years later, he returned to power with the May 1926 coup d'état, and became the strong man (in practice a dictator) of Poland. From then until his death 12 May 1935, he concerned himself primarily with military and foreign affairs.
Piłsudski pursued, with varying degrees of intensity, two complementary strategies, intended to enhance Poland's security: "Prometheism", which aimed at breaking up, successively, Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union into their constituent nations; and the creation of an Intermarum federation, comprising Poland and several of her neighbors. His record was ignored during the Communist years (1945–89). Wandycz characterizes him as "an ardent Polish patriot who on occasion would castigate the Poles for their stupidity, cowardice, or servility. He called himself a Lithuanian, and was stubborn and reserved, loath to show his emotions." Today, although some of his acts remain controversial, Piłsudski's memory is held in high esteem in Poland.
Taeger quotes Michael Keller via G. von Klocker in "Steme und Mensch" May 1935. Hoppmann quotes "Astrol. Rundschau".
- Vocation : Military : Military career
- Vocation : Politics : Activist/ political
- Vocation : Politics : Heads of state