|born on||20 April 571 Jul.Cal. at 01:25:35 (= 01:25:35 AM )|
|Place||Mecca, Saudi Arabia, 21n27, 39e49|
|Timezone||LMT m39e49 (is local mean time)|
|Astrology data||01°00' 18°40 Asc. 11°15'|
Arabian founder of Islam. He was orphaned at an early age and brought up under the care of his uncle Abu Talib. He later worked mostly as a merchant, as well as a shepherd, and was first married by age 25, with a widow fifteen years older. Being in the habit of periodically retreating to a cave in the surrounding mountains for several nights of seclusion and prayer, he later reported that it was there, at age 40, that he received his first revelation from God. Three years after this event Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "surrender" to Him (lit. islām) is the only way acceptable to God, and that he himself was a prophet and messenger of God, in the same vein as other Islamic prophets.
Muhammad gained few followers early on, and was met with hostility from some Meccan tribes; he and his followers were treated harshly. To escape persecution, Muhammad sent some of his followers to Abyssinia before he and his followers in Mecca migrated to Medina (then known as Yathrib) in the year 622. This event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, which is also known as the Hijri Calendar. In Medina, Muhammad united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina. After eight years of fighting with the Meccan tribes, his followers, who by then had grown to 10,000, took control of Mecca in the largely peaceful Conquest of Mecca. He destroyed the pagan idols in the city and then sent his followers out to destroy all of the remaining pagan temples in Eastern Arabia. In 632, a few months after returning to Medina from The Farewell Pilgrimage, Muhammad fell ill and died around 8 June 632. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam, and he had united Arabia into a single Muslim religious polity.
Manly P. Hall in the NAJ 1933, and also in his book "The Story of Astrology: The Belief in the Stars As a Factor in Human Progress" states "recorded" at April 20, 571 AD O.S., 1:25:35 AM LMT. This is apparently a quotation from Royal Horoscopes by B. (Bangalore) Suranarain Rao (Row in Manly's book text). This is a speculative chart, but it is quite close to the time suggested by old Islamic astrologers of 12 Rabi al-Awwal, which works out to 24 April Julian in 571 AD.
There are many alternative dates, and effectively the birth year or date is unknown. The rest of the soure notes is kept just as a (confusing) record.
Ruth Dewey gives February 9, 575 AD N.S., 3:00 PM from "The Astrological History of Masha'Allah," translated by Kennedy and Pingree, Harvard University Press, 1971, p.127, "Date recorded by Biruni as being Monday, the Khur (eleventh) of the month Dai in the year 41 of Anushirwaf. At the beginning of the 7th hour, with the Sun in the liver of heaven and the ASC in Cancer. Pavardin of the 41st year of Anushirwaf according to the calendar was May 3, 574 AD, and therefore the day was February 7, 575, which was indeed a Monday. this date is from Arabic astrology in the 8th century."
Davison in AQ 7/1960 mentions June 22, dawn.
Modern Astrology 5/1932 states that he was born "about 571 AD, died June 8, 632 AD and noted that Jupiter was conjunct Saturn early September 571.
Councel in AA 12/1946 states "569 and 571 are sometimes proposed; spec april 3, 570 AD O.S."
Granite quotes Fagan in an AFA excerpt for August 20, 570 AD.
D.S. Willis in MH 10/1980 gives the origin of the Islamic religion as July 15, 622 AD. Ken Eardley writes in May 2004 that he has data from De Boulainvilliers giving April 20 OS at 1:52 AM LMT and other sources give January 30, 570 and February 9, 575 NS.
Larry Ely writes, 12/2002:
- The Ruth Dewey citation is quite garbled, whether by her or by someone who entered it into your database. I have the book she quotes from, same exact citation, publication year, and page, and she has quoted the page, but has taken the liberty of transliterating the dates, and in so doing has gotten the years wrong by plus three years. Here is the correct citation: _THE ASTROLOGICAL HISTORY OF MASHA'ALLAH, E. S. Kennedy and David Pingree, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1991, p. 127. Quoting page 127: ' Appendix 1, Masha'allah's Date of the Prophet's Birth: This date is recorded in his _Chronology_(footnote) by Biruni as being Monday, the day Khur (11) of the month Dai in the year 41 of Anushirwan at the beginning of the seventh hour with the Sun in "the liver of heaven" and the ascendant in Cancer. 1 Favardin of the 41st year of Anushirwan according to Masha'allah's calendar was 3 May 571; and therefore 11 Dai, the day of the Prophet's birth, was 7 February 572, which was indeed a Monday. The Sun was then in Aquarius, and would have been setting if Cancer had been in the ascendant. This passage in Biruni confirms our previous assertions regarding the zij used by Masha'allah and its calendar.
- [Footnote: Documenta Islamica inedita, ed. Johann Fück (Akademie Verlag, Berlin, 1952, jpp. 95-96.] '
- Furthermore, the ADB entry for Ruth Dewey gives not only the wrong year, but the wrong day, and the wrong time of day. The entry currently reads: "February 9, 575 AD N.S., 3:00 PM". The correct NS date is: February 10, 572. As seen from the citation I quoted above, the year is 572, not 575. Furthermore, if one takes the cited day of February, February 7, which is OS, one needs to add 2 days to get NS for this century. But February 9 NS was not a Monday. February 10 was a Monday. The Ascendant is Cancer, so the Sun in Aquarius is in the quadrant from MC to Descendant. The Arabs changed their day at sunset, so we do not have to do with the problem of a day change mistake due to thinking the day changed at Noon. Now as the time of day, the record says the birth was in the 7th hour. This must mean from sunrise. For 21N27 and 39E49, the coordinates of Mecca, where Mohammed was born, the ST at sunrise was 15:55:26, and the ST at sunset was 3:09:01. Subtracting gives the length of daylight, which is 11:13:35. If we divide this by 12 to the length of each daylight hour, we have 0:56:08. Seven of these daylight hours is 6:32:55. If we add this to the ST of sunrise, we get the ST of birth. This is 22:28:21, but this only gives an Ascendant 18 Gemini. If we take 7:00 hours after sunrise, we get ST 22:55:26, which gives an Ascendant of 22 Gemini. So they must have counted the first hour from 0-1, the second hour from 1-2, and the seventh hour from 7-8. So taking 7:30 and adding this to the ST for sunrise, we have ST 23:25:26, which gives about 1Cn00 Ascendant. I used 2Cn00 as the Ascendant, which corresponds to GMT of 11:30:31, LAT of 1:53:14 PM, and LMT of 2:09:47 PM. It is important to get this citation right, as it is one of only two citations we have. The other is the first one you give via Manly Palmer Hall via Rao. You should note in this citation that the Rao, Suryanarian citation comes from Abu Ma'Shar's "THE THOUSANDS OF ABU MA'SHAR," The Warburg Institute, University of London, London, 1968, p. 116, in which the Ascendant is given as 20 degrees Capricorn. A more recent citation, a rectification from the Abu Ma'Shar reference is Ken Gillman, Considerations, XVII (2002), No. 3, p. 64. He gives Ascendant 25Cp06. Time given is 0:25:45 AM LMT of April 20 OS (21:46:29 GMT on April 19 OS in Greenwich).
- Notable : Famous : Historic figure (Founder of Islam)
- Notable : Book Collection : Occult/ Misc. Collection