|Birthname||Kremer, Gerhard (or de Cremere)|
|born on||5 March 1512 Jul.Cal. (15 Mar 1512 greg.) at 05:09:25 (= 05:09:25 AM )|
|Place||Rupelmonde, Belgium, 51n10, 4e18|
|Timezone||LMT m4e18 (is local mean time)|
|Astrology data||24°13' 22°19 Asc. 16°23'|
Flemish geographer, mapmaker and mathematician. He is associated with the Mercator projection, a type of map designed especially for use in navigation. Evidence does exist, however, indicating that the projection was in use in 1511, before Mercator was born. His work on the mathematical formulas for new map projections and in compiling geographic knowledge earned him a reputation as the outstanding geographer of the Renaissance.
Mercator’s father was a poor shoemaker; however, he, the last of seven children, was raised by an uncle who was an affluent ecclesiastic. His uncle, Gisbert Mercator, sent him to a religious school, probably in preparation to enter the priesthood. In 1530 he entered the University of Louvain in what is now Belgium, where his main studies were philosophy and theology. After graduating from the University of Louvain in 1532 with an M.A., Mercator studied mathematics and astronomy privately under Gemma Grisius and learned engraving. Concerned with the problem of reconciling the account of the origin of the universe given in the Bible with that given by Aristotle, he traveled to numerous places. Although doing little for his personal dilemma, his travels gave him a deep interest in geography. He became a maker of instruments for drawing maps and making field surveys. He produced his first map in 1537, and in 1541 he completed a terrestrial globe.
In 1544 he was accused of heresy and imprisoned several months before being released for lack of evidence. Mercator and his family moved to Duisburg, Duchy of Cleve (now Germany), in 1552 to escape religious persecution for their Protestant beliefs. He opened a cartographic workshop there and from 1559 to 1562 also taught mathematics at grammar school in Duisburg.
Mercator's famous map of the world, drawn on the projection that carries his name, was published in Duisburg in 1569 and was dedicated to William, Duke of Cleve. He received patronage from several other aristocrats, ecclesiastic officials and government officials during his lifetime. The Mercator projection, although severely distorting the size of the poles, is very useful to navigators because straight lines between any two points on such a map show a constant compass direction for the course of a ship. Mercator worked on maps of Europe and other parts of the world. In these maps he used new information to correct many inaccuracies in the maps of the previous standard of mapmakers, ancient Alexandrian geographer Ptolemy. Mercator’s break with Ptolemy for geography was as important as Copernicus’ break with Ptolemy for astronomy. He was the first to use the word "atlas" for a group of maps.
After having strokes in 1590 and 1593, he died on 12/02/1594 in Duisburg, Duchy of Cleve. Mercator’s great Atlas (begun in 1569) in which he attempted to describe the creation and history of the world, was printed in its unfinished state by his son in 1595.
- Social : Begin a program of study 1530 (University of Louvain)
- Social : End a program of study 1532 (M.A. from the university)
- Work : Published/ Exhibited/ Released 1537 (First map released)
- Work : End Major Project 1541 (Completed terrestrial globe)
- Social : Institutionalized - prison, hospital 1544 (Imprisoned for heresy)
- Family : Change residence 1552 (To Duisburg)
- Work : Published/ Exhibited/ Released 1569 (Released his famous world map)
- Work : Begin Major Project 1569 (Began a cartography workshop, three years)
- Health : Medical diagnosis 1590 (First stroke)
- Health : Medical diagnosis 1593 (Second stroke)
Arthur Blackwell quotes biography by A.S. Osley, "Mercator," pub in London 1969 by Faber and Faber, p.19: "By his own account, born early in the morning of Friday, 5 March 1512." Biography: Walter Ghin, "Mercator," p.178, "He was born at six o'clock in the morning . . . " (LMR computeed 6:00 AM LAT as 6:09:10 AM LMT. ATR: equation of time gives 9m25s difference between LAT and LMT for 5 March 1512 jul.cal.)
Biographer Wilhelm Krücken writes on his website http://www.wilhelmkruecken.de/Astrol/Astrolog.htm: "Gerhard Mercator selbst hat aber schon in seinem Brief am 23. März 1582 an den Prediger Haller ausgeführt, daß er bis dato stets des Glaubens (seiner Mutter) gewesen wäre, er sei am 12. März 1512 gegen 6 Uhr geboren. Nunmehr habe er aber ein Papier seines Vaters in Händen, in dem exakt über alle seine Kinder berichtet würde, und aus dem hervorgehe, daß er am 5. März 1512 gegen 5 Uhr morgens geboren sei."
(translation: In a letter to preacher Haller Mercator wrote, that he always believed to be born on 12 March at 6 am. But now he holds a paper by his father in his hands, with exact reports about all the children, and from which he learned that he was born on 5 March at 5 am.)
- Traits : Mind : Exceptional mind
- Diagnoses : Major Diseases : Stroke (Two)
- Family : Childhood : Family supportive (Raised by affluent uncle)
- Lifestyle : Work : Travel for work (Cartographer)
- Lifestyle : Home : Expatriate (To Germany to avoid persecution)
- Passions : Criminal Perpetrator : Prison sentence (Heresy charges, dismissed)
- Personal : Death : Long life more than 80 yrs (Age 82)
- Vocation : Education : Teacher (Mathmatics, cartography)
- Vocation : Science : Geology (Geographer)
- Vocation : Science : Mathematics/ Statistics
- Vocation : Travel : Adventurer
- Vocation : Travel : Explorer (Cartographer)
- Notable : Extraordinary Talents : For Visual perception
- Notable : Famous : Historic figure (Invented Mercator projection)
- Notable : Famous : Founder/ originator
- Notable : Famous : Top 5% of Profession