|born on||7 April 1859 at 11:00 (= 11:00 AM )|
|Place||Mayen, Germany, 50n19, 7e13|
|Timezone||LMT m7e13 (is local mean time)|
|Astrology data||17°05' 07°25 Asc. 25°46'|
German-born American biologist noted chiefly for his experimental work on artificial parthenogenesis (reproduction without fertilization).
In 1891 he moved to the United States, becoming professor successively at Bryn Mawr (Pa.) College (1891–92), the University of Chicago (1892–1902), and the University of California, Berkeley (1902–10). In 1910 he became a member of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (now Rockefeller University), New York City, a position he held until his death. A good deal of his experimental work was done at the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, Mass.
Popular interest, attended by some controversy, accompanied his parthenogenesis experiments, beginning in 1899, when he succeeded in bringing about the development of sea urchin larvae from unfertilized eggs by exposing them to controlled changes in their environment. This work was later extended to the production of parthenogenetic frogs, which he raised to sexual maturity. Loeb’s work was significant in showing that the initiation of cell division in fertilization was controlled chemically and was in effect separate from the transmission of hereditary traits.
Loeb also is remembered for his work on the physiology of the brain, animal tropisms (involuntary orientations), regeneration of tissue, and the duration of life. He is noted for his arguments in favour of mechanism, the belief that the phenomena of life can be explained in terms of physical and chemical laws. In his later years he made important contributions to the theory of colloidal behaviour of proteins.
Loeb became one of the most famous scientists in America, widely covered in newspapers and magazines. He was the model for the character of Max Gottlieb in Sinclair Lewis's Pulitzer-winning novel Arrowsmith, the first great work of fiction to idealize and idolize pure science. Mark Twain also wrote an essay titled "Dr. Loeb's Incredible Discovery", which urges the reader not to support a rigid general consensus, but instead be open to new scientific advances.
Loeb was nominated many times for the Nobel Prize but never won.
He died 11 February 1924.
Gauquelin vol 2
- Vocation : Science : Biology
- Notable : Famous : First in Field (artificial parthenogenesis)
- Notable : Famous : Top 5% of Profession