|Birthname||Mikhail Borisovich Khodorkovsky|
|born on||26 June 1963|
|Place||Moscow, Russian Federation, 55n45, 37e35|
|Timezone||MSK h3e (is standard time)|
|Astrology data||04°03' or|
Russian oligarch and businessman. Khodorkovsky grew up in Moscow, in an ordinary Soviet family with a two-room apartment, his parents being engineers. His father is Jewish and his mother is Christian. The young Khodorkovsky was ambitious. He received excellent grades. He became deputy head of Komsomol (the Communist Youth League) at his university, the Mendeleev Moscow Institute of Chemistry and Technology, where he graduated in chemical engineering in 1986. The Komsomol involvement was one of the ways to get into the ranks of communist apparatchiks and to achieve the highest possible living standard.
Khodorkovsky had worked his way up the Communist apparatus during the Soviet years, and began several businesses during the era of glasnost and perestroika. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, he accumulated wealth through the development of Siberian oil fields as the head of Yukos, one of the largest Russian companies to emerge from the privatization of state assets during the 1990s.
He was arrested on 25 October 2003, to appear before investigators as a witness, but within hours of being taken into custody he was charged with fraud. The government under Vladimir Putin then froze shares of Yukos shortly thereafter on tax charges. The state took further actions against Yukos, leading to a collapse of the company's share price and the evaporation of much of Khodorkovsky's wealth. He was found guilty and sentenced to nine years in prison in May 2005. While still serving his sentence, Khodorkovsky and business partner Platon Lebedev were further charged and found guilty of embezzlement and money laundering in December 2010, extending his prison sentence to 2017.
There is widespread concern internationally that the trials and sentencing were politically motivated.
After nearly 10 years in prison, he was pardoned by president Putin on 20 December 2013 and released the same day.
- opponent/rival/enemy relationship with Putin, Vladimir (born 7 October 1952)
date from Wikipedia, time unknown
- Vocation : Business : Business owner
- Vocation : Business : Entrepreneur
- Notable : Famous : Notable extremes (extremely wealthy oligarch until his downfall)