|born on||1 May 1908 at 23:00 (= 11:00 PM )|
|Place||Fontanellato, Italy, 44n53, 10e10|
|Timezone||MET h1e (is standard time)|
|Astrology data||11°06' 26°52 Asc. 24°37'|
|Date||1 May 1908 at 03:00 (= 03:00 AM )|
|Place||Fontanellato, ITALY, 44n53, 10e10|
|Timezone||MET h1e (is standard time)|
|Astrology data||10°17' 15°45 Asc. 08°51'|
Italian journalist, cartoonist and humorist whose most famous creation is the priest Don Camillo. The character also figured in a series of successful French-language films (1950s and ’60s) starring the French comic actor Fernandel.
After his family went bankrupt, Guareschi could not continue his studies at the University of Parma. After working at various minor jobs, he started to write for a local newspaper. In 1929 he became editor of the satirical magazine Corriere Emiliano, and from 1936 to 1943 he was the chief editor of a similar magazine called Bertoldo.
In 1943 he was drafted into the army, which apparently helped him to avoid trouble with the fascist authorities. He ended up as an artillery officer.
When Italy signed the armistice with Allied troops in 1943, he was arrested and imprisoned in prison camps in German occupied Poland for three years alongside other Italian soldiers. He later wrote about this time inDiario Clandestino (My secret Diary).
After the war, Guareschi returned to Italy and founded a monarchist satirical magazine, Candido. After Italy became a republic, he began to support Democrazia Cristiana. He criticized and satirized the Communists in his magazine, famously drawing a Communist as a man with an extra nostril. When the Communists were soundly defeated in the 1948 Italian elections, Guareschi did not put his pen down but criticized Democrazia Cristiana as well.
In 1950, Candido published a satirical cartoon by Carlo Manzoni poking fun at Luigi Einaudi, President of the Republic. The President is at the Quirinal Palace, surrounded by, instead of the presidential guard of honour (the corazzieri), by giant bottles ofNebbiolo wine, which Einaudi actually produced in his land in Dogliani. Each bottle was labeled with the institutional logo. The cartoon was judged in Contempt of the President by a court of the time. Guareschi, as the director of the magazine, was held responsible and sentenced.
In 1954 Guareschi was charged with libel after he had published two facsimile wartime letters from resistance leader and former Prime Minister Alcide De Gasperi requesting the Allies to bomb the outskirts of Rome in order to demoralize Germancollaborators. The legitimacy of the letters was never established by the court, but after a two month trial it found in favour of De Gasperi. Guareschi declined to appeal the verdict and spent 409 days in Parma's San Francesco jail, and another six months on probation at his home.
By 1956 his health had deteriorated and he began to spend time in Switzerland for health reasons. In 1957 he retired from the post of editor of Candido but remained a contributor.
He died 22 July 1968 in Cervia from a heart attack.
- compare to chart of Fernandel (born 8 May 1903). Notes: creator of Don Camillo
Arno Müller, vol 2
On 26/11/2014 Sy Scholfield quotes 3 a.m. from his autobiography, "Chi sogna nuovi gerani?: Le opere di Giovannino Guareschi #26" by Giovannino Guareschi ( Bur, 2002): "Giovannino Oliviero Giuseppe risulta nato alle ore 23 del 1°maggio 1908 dall'Atto di nascita. Invece, dall'Atto di battesimo, Joannes Olivierus Joseph pare sia nato il 10 maggio 1908. L'errore di orario dell'Atto di nascita può essere attribuito a chi ha fatto la notifica: io sono nato alle tre del mattino. L'errore di data dell'Atto di battesimo è stato forse commesso dal sagrestano e avallato da don Artemio Bernini che era solo da poco tempo prevosto di Fontanelle. . . . Il primo sole she i miei occhi vedono è il sole della mattina del 1 Maggio 1908."
Abridged translation: Giovannino Oliviero Giuseppe is born at 11pm of 1 May 1908 by the Act of birth. Yet, on the Act of baptism, Joannes Olivierus Joseph was born on 10 May 1908. The error in the time of birth on the Act can be attributed to those who made the notification: I was born at three in the morning. The error of the date of the Act of baptism was possibly committed by the sacristan ... My eyes first saw the Sun on the morning of 1 May 1908.
- Vocation : Writers : Columnist/ journalist
- Vocation : Writers : Humor