|born on||6 February 1905|
|Place||Krosno, Poland, 49n42, 21e46|
|Timezone||MET h1e (is standard time)|
Polish communist leader. He was the de facto leader of Poland from 1945 to 1948, and again from 1956 to 1970.
In 1934, he went to Moscow, where he lived for a year. Upon his return to Poland he was arrested and spent most of his time in prison until the beginning of World War II. During the war, Gomułka became an influential Polish communist and in 1943 convinced Joseph Stalin to allow the reformation of the local communist party under the name Polish Workers' Party. He was a Deputy Prime Minister in the Provisional Government of Republic of Poland from January to June 1945, and in the Provisional Government of National Unity, from 1945 to 1947. Using his position in the government, he crushed all meaningful resistance to the communists. He also helped the communists in winning the 3 x Tak (3 Times Yes) referendum of 1946. A year later, he played a key role in the rigged 1947 parliamentary elections, after which the communists and their allies were declared overwhelming winners and legal opposition was eliminated.
With the onset of undisguised communist rule, Gomułka became, as he said, "the hegemon of Poland". However, between 1948–1954, rivalry between Party factions (Gomułka was the leader of the native, Bolesław Bierut of Stalin's Moscow-reared wartime communist group) led to Gomułka's removal from power and imprisonment. He was accused of "right wing-reactionary deviation", and expelled from the Polish United Workers' Party (as the Polish Workers' Party was renamed following a merger with the Polish Socialist Party).
In 1956 he was reinstated as first party secretary and ruled until December 1970, when bloody clashes with shipyard workers on the Baltic Coast, in which several dozen workers were fatally shot, forced his resignation and retirement (officially for health reasons; he had in fact suffered a stroke). A dynamic younger man, Edward Gierek, took over the Party leadership and tensions eased.
After his death in 1982 of cancer, Gomułka's negative image in communist propaganda was modified and some of his constructive contributions were recognized. He is seen as an honest and austere believer in the socialist system, who, unable to resolve Poland's formidable difficulties and satisfy mutually contradictory demands, grew more rigid and despotic later in his career. His memoirs were first published in 1994.
- associate relationship with Kliszko, Zenon (born 8 December 1908). Notes: political associates, leading the Polish communist party
- opponent/rival/enemy relationship with Gierek, Edward (born 6 January 1913). Notes: Gierek replaced Gomulka as party leader
- opponent/rival/enemy relationship with Jaruzelski, Wojciech (born 6 July 1923)
date from Wikipedia, time of birth unknown.
- Vocation : Politics : Heads of state (formally party secretary, effectively ruler of Poland)
- Vocation : Politics : Party Affiliation (Polish communist)