Ariëns Kappers, Cornelius Ubbo
|born on||9 August 1877 at 02:30 (= 02:30 AM )|
|Place||Groningen, Netherlands, 53n13, 6e34|
|Timezone||LMT m6e34 (is local mean time)|
|Astrology data||16°32' 14°37 Asc. 24°33'|
Dutch neurologist, anthropologist and brain researcher.
Ariëns Kappers was the second of the three sons of doctor in philosophy, HBS school teacher and director Johannes Ariens Kappers (28 March 1845, Groningen) and Geertruide Adriane Klaassen (12 August 1873, Groningen) who married 12 August 1873 at Groningen.
He visited the HBS school of his father, graduated in 1895 and did the state exam Gymnasium a year later, as Latin was needed for a scientific career till 1917.
Ariëns Kappers studied medicine in Amsterdam (UvA). During his study he worked at the histological laboratory of professor Van Rees. He was also active in student life, enjoyed drama and became chairman of the Disputation 'Newton' with members like L.E.J. Brouwer. He graduated in 1901, microscopically studied tumours with Rotgans, became a physician in 1903, but never practised. Instead he was fascinated in the comparative anatomy of the nervous system. He dissertated on 4 November 1904 cum laude under Van Rees with the thesis: "De banen en centra in de hersenen der Teleostiërs en Selachiërs".
Throughout his life Kappens liked to travel abroad to lay international connections, to teach and or to study . He visited twice the famous Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn in Napoli. As a student in the winter of 1901/1902 and three months in 1904/1905. From 1906 till 1908 he worked in Frankfurt under professor Ludwig Edinger, the founder of comparative anatomy. From 1923 to 1924 he was sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation to be a 'visiting professor' in histology and neurology at the Union Medical College in Beijing, China. Subsequently he visited medical schools in China, Korea, Japan and the United States. Between 1929 and 1930 he was a professor at the American University at Beirut. He also gave lectures on the European continent, US and Canada.
Kappers postulated the theory of neurobiotaxis, which states that nerve cell bodies or their axons may grow toward the area from which they receive the most stimuli. This wandering of neurons explains the movement of nerve centres in evolution and the phenomenon of neuronal plasticity in general.
He was the first director of the Dutch Central Institute for Brain Research, which contains a a large database of humane and animal brain specimens. One can still donate one's brain to science in this Institute.
He became famous with his series "Die vergleichende Anatomie des Nervensystems der Wirbeltiere und des Menschen" (1921), translated as "The comparative anatomy of the nervous system of vertebrates, including man" (1936)
Anthropology and anti-semitism
Already in 1934 Ariëns Kappers was a member of the Dutch "Comité tot Verweer tegen het Anti-Semitisme" that took action against the anti-semitism in Nazi Germany. From 1943 till his death Ariëns Kappers was the chairman of the Nederlandsch Nationaal Bureau voor Anthropologie (Dutch National Agency of Anthropology, 1922-1949). Without the Germans knowing, several Jews were working here despite the Berufsverbote. During WW2 Ariëns Kappers used his international reputation as a leading brain researcher to sign documents which stated that people that were Jews according their Birth Certificate could not be "scientifically" seen Jews. They must have been illegal bastards, that had a many not Jewish parents in their progeny. The Nazi's accepted Ariëns Kappers "Ariërverklaring" because of his famous scientific reputation and by this trick of the physician and anthropologist Arie de Froe about 200 Jews were saved from deportation.
Historical note: At that time the Dutch BC's mentioned the religion of the parents. This made the persecution of Jews in the Netherlands a relatively simple administrative job for the Nazi Germany occupants. Resistance groups tried to blow up or set on fire Municipal Archives, but they were tiny or to late. So finding an medical out way was worthwhile.
On 21 Sept 1937 he married the rich widow Clara Betty von Hunteln (1880-1980). They got no children.
Ariëns Kappers died at age 68 at his brain institute in Amsterdam on 28 July 1946.
- (has as) worker relationship with Brouwer, Bernardus (born 23 March 1881)
- Relationship : Marriage 21 September 1937 ("koningin van de Overtoom ", very rich widow)
chart Placidus Equal_H.
Gauquelin Series A , Vol 2 #2477
- Traits : Personality : Charismatic (stimulaterd others and laid many connections)
- Vocation : Education : Researcher (Comparitive neuroanatomist and brain researcher)
- Vocation : Medical : Physician (neurologist, anthropologist and brain researcher.)
- Notable : Famous : First in Field (comparitive neuroanatomy)
- Notable : Famous : Top 5% of Profession (neuroanatomy, neurology)